Bibliographies

The following are bibliographies compiled by the PFV team. In addition to sources listed on the individual profile pages, they provide a starting point for research on the history and context of women and feminism in psychology.

The following publications focus on women in science, in order to situate the history of women in psychology in its broader context of history of science. These resources provide a contextual framework for understanding the challenges faced by women in psychology.

Ainley, M. G. (Ed.)(1990). Despite the odds: Essays on Canadian women and science. Downsview, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Jack, J. (2009). Science on the home front: American women scientists in World War II. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Jordan, D. (2006). Sisters in science: Conversations with black women scientists about race, gender, and their passion for science. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

Ogilvie, M. B. & Harvey, J. D. (Eds.). (2000). The biographical dictionary of women in science: Pioneering lives from ancient times to the mid-20th century. New York: Routledge.

Due to the efforts of many historians and psychologists, the historiography on women in psychology is now extensive. What appears below is a selection from this vast literature, focusing on treatments of individual lives or group analyses of lives and careers. Biographical and autobiographical material on women psychologists and information on their contributions can also be found in the nine-volume series A History of Psychology in Autobiography, the three-volume series The Psychologists (T. S. Krawiec, Ed.), the multivolume Harvard University Press series, Notable American Women, and the six-volume Portraits of Pioneers in Psychology series. Obituaries published in the American Psychologist (a list is available at the APA archives website) are also a good source for information. Additionally, issues 1-4 of Volume 17 (1995) of the journal Women & Therapy, as well as Volume 5, Issue 1 (1980) of Psychology of Women Quarterly feature articles on female psychologists. Notably, our selections focus primarily on the North American and western European contexts. Information on the history of women in psychology in other countries is welcomed. Contact alexr@yorku.ca.

Aiyegbayo, O. (2005). Waveney Bushell: A pioneer black educational psychologist. History & Philosophy of Psychology, 7, 36-44.

Ash, M. G. (1995). Women émigré psychologists and psychoanalysts in the United States. In S. Quack (Ed.), Between sorrow and strength: Women refugees of the Nazi period (pp. 239-264). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Benjamin, L. T., Jr. (1980). Women in psychology: Biography and autobiography. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5, 140-144.

Benjamin, L. T., Henry, K. D., & McMahon, L. R. (2005). Inez Beverly Prosser and the education of African Americans. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 41, 43-62.

Bernstein, M. & Russo, N. (1974). The history of psychology revisited, or, Up with our foremothers. American Psychologist, 29, 130-134.

Bohan, J. S. (1995). Re-placing women in psychology: Readings toward a more inclusive history. Second Edition. Dubuque, IOWA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.

Bohan, J. S. (1990). Contextual history: A framework for re-placing women in the history of psychology. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14, 213-227.

Bryan, A. I., & Boring, E. G. (1944). Women in American psychology: Prolegomenon. Psychological Bulletin, 41, 447-454.

Bryan, A. I., & Boring, E. G. (1946). Women in American psychology: Statistics from the OPP questionnaire. American Psychologist, 1, 71-79.

Bryan, A. I., & Boring, E. G. (1947). Women in American psychology: Factors affecting their professional careers. American Psychologist, 2, 3-20.

Browne, R. B. (1969). Love my children: The education of a teacher. New York: Meredith Press. [The memoir of Rose Butler Browne, the first Black woman to earn a doctorate in education from Harvard University.]

Cameron, C. E., & Hagen, J. W. (2005). Women in child development: Themes from the SRCD oral history project. History of Psychology, 8, 289-316.

Campos, R. H. de Freitas (2001). Helena Antipoff (1892-1974): A synthesis of Swiss and Soviet psychology in the context of Brazilian education. History of Psychology, 4, 133-158.

Capshew, J. H., & Laszlo, A. C. (1986). "We would not take no for an answer": Women psychologists and gender politics during World War II. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 157- 180.

Chesler, P. Rothblum, E. D., & Cole, E. (Eds.)(1996). Feminist foremothers in women's studies, psychology, and mental health. New York: Routledge.

Corey-Seibold, M. L. (1982). Psychology's foremothers: Case studies of six women who shaped the development of American psychology. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International.

deFord, M. A. (1948). Psychologist unretired: The life pattern of Lillien J. Martin. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

de la Cour, L. (1987). The 'other' side of psychology: Women psychologists in Toronto from 1920-1945. Canadian Woman Studies, 8, 44-46.

Furumoto, L. (1979). Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930): Fourteenth president of the American Psychological Association. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 15, 346- 356.

Furumoto, L. (1987). On the margins: Women and the professionalization of psychology in the United States, 1890-1940. In M. G. Ash & W. R. Woodward (Eds.), Psychology in twentieth century thought and society (pg. 93-113). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Furumoto, L. (1992). Joining separate spheres - Christine Ladd-Franklin, Woman-scientist (1847-1930). American Psychologist, 47, 175-182.

Furumoto, L. (1994). Christine Ladd-Franklin's color theory: Strategy for claiming scientific authority? In H. E. Adler & R. W. Rieber (Eds.), Aspects of the history of psychology in America, 1892-1992 (pp. 91-112). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol 727. Washington, DC: APA.

Furumoto, L. (2003). Beyond great men and great ideas: History of psychology in sociocultural context. In P. Bronstein & K. Quina (Eds.), Teaching gender and multicultural awareness: Resources for the psychology classroom (pp. 113-124). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Furumoto, L., & Scarborough, E. (1986). Placing women in the history of psychology: The first American women psychologists. American Psychologist, 41, 35-42.

Furumoto, L., & Scarborough, E. (1987). Placing women in the history of comparative psychology: Margaret Floy Washburn and Margaret Morse Nice. In E. Tobach (Ed.), Historical perspectives and the international status of comparative psychology (pp. 103-117). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Gilbreth, L. M. (1998). As I remember: An autobiography. Norcross, GA: Engineering and Management Press.

Gul, P., Korosteliov, A., Caplan, L., Ball, L. C., Bazar, J. L., Rodkey, E. N., Sheese, K., Young, J., & Rutherford, A. (2013). Reconstructing the experiences of first generation women in Canadian psychology. Canadian Psychology, 54(2), 94-104.

Gundlach, H. Roe, R. Sinatra, M. & Tanucci, G. (Eds.).(2010). European pioneer women in psychology. Milano, Italy: FrancoAngeli Psicologia.

Guthrie, R. V. (1998). Even the rat was white: A historical view of psychology (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. [Offers biographical accounts of a selection of early African-American women psychologists.]

Higgins, F.C. (1918). The life of Naomi Norsworthy. New York: Houghton-Mifflin.

Hogan, J. D., & Sexton, V. S. (1991). Women and the American Psychological Association. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 623-634.

Hollingworth, H. L. (1943). Leta Stetter Hollingworth. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Johnson, A. (2015). Florence Goodenough and child study: The question of mothers as researchers. History of psychology, 18(2), 183-195.

Johnston, E., & Johnson, A. (2008). Searching for the second generation of American women psychologists. History of Psychology, 11, 40-69.

Keates, J. & Stam, H. J. (2009). "The disadvantaged psychological scene": Educational experiences of women in early Canadian psychology. Canadian Psychology, 50, 273-282.

Klein, A. G. (2002). A forgotten voice: A biography of Leta Stetter Hollingworth. Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.

Koppes, L. L. (1997). American female pioneers of industrial and organizational psychology during the early years. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 500-515. [Features the work of Marion Bills, Elsie Bregman, Lillian Gilbreth, and Mary Holmes Hayes.]

Lal, S. (2002). Giving children security: Mamie Phipps Clark and the racialization of child psychology. American Psychologist, 57, 20-28.

Milar, K. S. (1999). "A Coarse and Clumsy Tool": Helen Thompson Woolley and the Cincinnati Vocational Bureau. History of Psychology, 2(3): 219-235.

Milar, K. S. (2000). The first generation of women psychologists and the psychology of women. American Psychologist, 55, 616-619.

Minton, H. L. (2000). Psychology and gender at the turn of the century. American Psychologist, 55, 613-615.

Mitchell, M. B. (1951). Status of women in the American Psychological Association. American Psychologist, 6, 193-201.

Morse, J. F. (2002). Ignored but not forgotten: The work of Helen Bradford Thompson Woolley. NWSA Journal, 14, 121-147.

O'Connell, A. N., & Russo, N. Felipe (Eds.). (1980). Eminent women in psychology: Models of achievement. New York: Human Sciences Press.

O'Connell, A. N., & Russo, N. Felipe (Eds.). (1983). Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology. New York: Columbia University Press.

O’Connell, A. & Russo, N. Felipe (1988) (Eds.). Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology, volume 2. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

O'Connell, A. N., & Russo, N. Felipe (Eds.). (1990). Women in psychology: A bio-bibliographic sourcebook. New York: Greenwood Press.

O'Connell, A. N., & Russo, N. Felipe (1991). Women's heritage in psychology: Past and present. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 495-504.

O'Connell, A. N. (2001). Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology, volume 3. New York: Psychology Press.

Pettit, M. (2008). The new woman as "tied up dog": Amy E. Tanner's situated knowledges. History of Psychology, 11, 145-163.

Roazen, P. (1985). Helene Deutsch: A psychoanalyst's life. New York: New American Library.

Rodkey, E. N. (2015). The visual cliff’s forgotten menagerie: Rats, goats, babies, and myth-making in the history of psychology. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 51, 113-140.

Rodkey, E. N. (2016). Far more than dutiful daughter: Milicent Shinn's child study and education advocacy after 1898. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 177(6), 209-230.

Rodkey, E. N. (2017). “Very much in love”: The letters of Magda Arnold and Father John Gasson. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 53, 286-304.

Rossiter, M. W. (1982). Women scientists in America: Struggles and strategies to 1940. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Russo, N. F., & Denmark, F. L. (1987). Contributions of women to psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 279-298.

Russo, N. F., & O'Connell, A. N. (1980). Models from our past: Psychology's foremothers. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5, 11-53. [This whole issue contains biographical articles on women, including Mary Whiton Calkins, Margaret Floy Washburn, Karen Horney, Edna Heidbreder, Mary Cover Jones, Anne Roe, and Susan Gray.]

Rutherford, A. (2005). The woman problem. The General Psychologist, 40(1). 14.15.

Rutherford, A. (2006). Mother of behavior therapy and beyond: Mary Cover Jones and the study of the “whole child.” In D. Dewsbury, L. T. Benjamin, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology, Vol. VI. (pp. 189-206). Washington, DC: APA.

Rutherford, A. (2012). Starting from strengths: Mamie Phipps Clark, developmental psychologist. In W. E. Pickren, D. Dewsbury, & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology, Volume VII (pp. 261-275). New York: Psychology Press.

Rutherford, A., & Pickren, W. E. (2008). Women and minorities in psychology. In S. Davis and B. Buskist (Eds.), The handbook of 21st century psychology (pp. 25-36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rutherford, A., Unger, R., & Cherry, F. (2011). Reclaiming SPSSI’s sociological past: Marie Jahoda and the immersion tradition in social psychology. Journal of Social Issues, 67(1), 42-58.

Rutherford, A. & Vaughn-Blount, K. (2010). Georgia Babladelis (1931– 2009): Breaking traditions, building foundations. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 5-6.

Scarborough, E. (1992). Mrs. Ricord and psychology for women, circa 1840. American Psychologist, 47, 274-280.

Scarborough, E. (1992). Women in the American Psychological Association. In R. B. Evans, V. S. Sexton, & T. Cadwallader (Eds.), The American Psychological Association: A historical perspective (pp. 303-325). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Scarborough, E., & Furumoto, L. (1987). Untold lives: The first generation of American women psychologists. New York: Columbia University Press.

Shields, S. A. (2007). Passionate men, emotional women: Psychology constructs gender difference in the late 19th century. History of Psychology, 10, 92-110.

Shields, S. A. & Kappas, A. (Eds.)(2006). Magda B. Arnold's contributions to emotion research and theory. New York: Psychology Press.

Shields, S. A. (1975). Ms. Pilgrim's progress: The contributions of Leta Stetter Hollingworth to the psychology of women. American Psychologist, 30, 852-857.

Simmel, M. L. (1986). A tribute to Eugenia Hanfmann, 1905-1983. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 22, 348-356.

Stevens, G., & Gardner, S. (1985). Psychology of the scientist: LIV. Permission to excel: A preliminary report of influences on eminent women psychologists. Psychological Reports, 57, 1023-1026.

Stevens, G., & Gardner, S. (1982). The women of psychology: Vol. I. Pioneers and innovators. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.

Stevens, G., & Gardner, S. (1982). The women of psychology: Vol. II. Expansion and refinement. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.

Storm, C. & Gurevich, M. (2001). Looking forward, looking back: Women in psychology. Canadian Psychology, 42, 245-248.

Unger, R. K. (Ed.). (2004). Handbook of the psychology of women and gender. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Valentine, E. R. (2006). Beatrice Edgell: Pioneer woman psychologist. New York: Nova Science.

Warren, W. (1999). Black women scientists in the United States. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. [Includes information on Inez Prosser, Mamie Clark, Ruth Howard, Alberta Banner Turner, and others.]

Wentworth, P. A. (1999). The moral of her story: Exploring the philosophical and religious commitments in Mary Whiton Calkins' self-psychology. History of Psychology, 2, 119-131.

Woodward, W. R. (2010). Russian women emigrees in psychology: Informal Jewish networks. History of Psychology, 13, 111-137.

Wright, M. J. (1992). Women ground-breakers in Canadian psychology: World War II and its aftermath. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 33(4), 657-682.

Young-Breuhl, E. (2004). Anna Freud: A biography, 2nd Edition. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

The following resources are historical or contextual accounts of feminist psychology as a sub-discipline, and/or subject matter, and/or practice, primarily in North America. For developments outside North America, a good general reference is Rutherford, Capdevila, Undurti, & Palmary (Eds.), Handbook of International Feminisms: Perspectives on Psychology, Women, Culture, and Rights (2011) which includes contributions from women in Brazil, India, Spain, Turkey, Britain, China, the Nordic region, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Israel, New Zealand, and Pakistan, as well as the United States and Canada. See also Travis, White, Rutherford, Williams, Cook, & Wyche, K. F. (Eds.). (2017). APA handbook of the psychology of women (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Austin, S., Rutherford, A., & Pyke, S. (2006). In our own voice: The impact of feminism on Canadian psychology. Feminism & Psychology, 16, 259-271.

Bergeron, S., Senn, C. Y., & Poulin, C. (2006). Feminist psychology in Canada. Feminism & Psychology, 16(3), 235-241.

Boatswain, S., Brown, N., Fiksenbaum, L., Goldstein, L., Greenglass, E., Nadler, E., & Pyke, S.W. (2001). Canadian feminist psychology: Where are we now? Canadian Psychology, 42(4), 276-285.

Bohan, J. S. (2002). Sex differences and/in the self: Classic themes, feminist variations, postmodern challenges. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 74-88.

Brodsky, A. M. (1980). A decade of feminist influence on psychotherapy. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 4, 331-344.

Bryan, A. I. (1986). A participant's view of the National Council of Women Psychologists: Comment on Capshew and Laszlo. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 181-184.

Buhle, M. J. (1998). Feminism and its discontents: A century of struggle with psychoanalysis. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Capshew, J. H., & Laszlo, A. C. (1986). "We would not take no for an answer": Women psychologists and gender politics during World War II. Journal of Social Issues, 42, 157-180.

Chrisler, J. C., & Smith, C. A. (2004). Feminism and psychology. In M. A. Paludi (Ed.), Praeger guide to the psychology of gender (pp. 271-291). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Crawford, M. & Marecek, J. (1989). Psychology reconstructs the female, 1968-1988. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 13, 147-165.

Denmark, F. L., & Fernandez, L. C. (1993). Historical development of the psychology of women. In F. L. Denmark & M. A. Paludi (Eds.), Psychology of women: A handbook of issues and theories (pp. 4-22). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Dodd, J. (2015). "The name game": Feminist protests of the DSM and diagnostic labels in the 1980s. History of Psychology, 18(3), 312-323.

Eagly, A. H., Eaton, A., Rose, S. M., Riger, S., & McHugh, M. C. (2012). Feminism and psychology: Analysis of a half-century of research on women and gender. American Psychologist, 67(3), 211-230.

Harris, B. J. (1984). The power of the past: History and the psychology of women. In M. Lewin (Ed.), In the shadow of the past: Psychology portrays the sexes (pp. 1-25). New York: Columbia University Press.

Henley, N. M. (1985). Psychology and gender. Signs, 11, 101-119.

Herman, E. (1995). The curious courtship of psychology and women’s liberation. In E. Herman, The romance of American psychology (pp. 276-303). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Johnson, A. & Johnston, E. (2010). Unfamiliar feminisms: Revisiting the National Council of Women Psychologists. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34(3), 311-327.

Johnson, A., & Johnston, E. (2015). Up the years with the Bettersons: Gender and parent education in interwar America. History of psychology, 18(3), 252-269.

Kim, S. & Rutherford, A. (2015). From seduction to sexism: Feminists challenge the ethics of therapist-client sexual relations in 1970s America. History of Psychology, 18(3), 283-296.

Kimball, M. M. (1986). Developing a feminist psychology of women: Past and future accomplishments. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 27(3), 248-259.

Kimball, M.M. (2003). Feminists rethink gender. In D.B. Hill, & M.J. Kral (Eds.), About psychology: Essays at the crossroads of history, theory, and philosophy (pp. 127-146). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Kimball, M. M. (2008). Coming of age with women's studies. In W. Robbins, M. Luxton, M. Eichler, & F. Descarries (Eds.), Minds of our own: Inventing feminist scholarship and women's studies in Canada and Québec, 1966-76 (pp. 243-249). Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Marecek, J., Kimmel, E. B., Crawford, M., & Hare-Mustin, R. T. (2003). Psychology of women and gender. In D. K. Freedheim (Ed.), Handbook of psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology (pp. 249-268). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Mednick, M. T. S., & Urbanski, L. (1991). The origins and activities of APA's division of the psychology of women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 651-663.

Mednick, M. T. & Weissman, H. J. (1975). The psychology of women: Selected topics. Annual Review of Psychology, 26, 1-18.

Minton, H. L. (2000). Psychology and gender at the turn of the century. American Psychologist, 55, 613-615.

Morawski, J. G. (1994). Practicing feminisms, reconstructing psychology: Notes on a liminal science. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.

Morawski, J. G. & Agronick, G. (1991). A restive legacy: The history of feminist work in experimental and cognitive psychology. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 567-579.

Parlee, M. B. (1992). Feminism and psychology. In S. Rosenberg-Zalk & J. Gordon-Kelter (Eds.), Revolutions in knowledge: Feminism in the social sciences (pp. 33-55). Boulder. CO: Westview Press.

Parlee, M. B. (1979). Psychology and women. Signs, 5, 121-133.

Parlee, M. B. (1975). Psychology. Signs, 1, 119-138.

Pyke, S. W. (1992). The more things change... Canadian Psychology, 33, 713-720.

Pyke, S. W. (2001). Feminist psychology in Canada: Early days. Canadian Psychology, 42, 268-275.

Pyke, S.W. (2008). The second wave: A personal voyage. In W. Robbins, M. Luxton, M. Eichler, & F. Descarries (Eds.), Minds of our own: Inventing feminist scholarship and women's studies in Canada and Québec, 1966-76 (pp. 142-147). Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Pyke, S.W. & Stark-Adamec, C. (1981). Canadian feminism and psychology: The first decade. Canadian Psychology, 22, 38-54.

Robb, C. (2007). This changes everything: The relational revolution in psychology. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

Rosenberg, R. (1982). Beyond separate spheres: The intellectual roots of modern feminism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Rosenthal, N. B. (1984). Consciousness-raising: From revolution to re-evaluation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 8, 309-326.

Ruck, N. (2015). Liberating minds: Consciousness-raising as a bridge between feminism and psychology in 1970s Canada. History of Psychology, 18(3), 297-311.

Russo, N. F., & Dumont, A. (1997). A history of division 35 (psychology of women): Origins, issues, activities, future. In D. A. Dewsbury (Ed.), Unification through division: Histories of the divisions of the American Psychological Association(vol. 2, pp. 211-238). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Rutherford, A. (2010). Feminism and American psychology: The science and politics of gender. In W. E. Pickren & A. Rutherford, A history of modern psychology in context (pp. 262-285). New York: Wiley.

Rutherford, A. (2015). Maintaining masculinity in mid-20th century American psychology: Edwin Boring, scientific eminence, and the “woman problem.” In E. Milam & R. Nye (Eds.) Osiris: Scientific Masculinities, 30, 250-271.

Rutherford, A., Capdevila, R., Undurti, V., & Palmary, I. (Eds.) (2011). Handbook of international feminisms: Perspectives on psychology, women, culture, and rights. New York: Springer SBM.

Rutherford, A., & Granek, L. (2010). Emergence and development of the psychology of women. In J. C. Chrisler & D. R. McCreary (Eds.), Handbook of gender research in psychology, Volume 1 (pp. 19-41). New York: Springer.

Rutherford, A. Marecek, J., & Sheese, K. (2012). Psychology of women and gender. In D. K. Freedheim & I. B. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of psychology, Volume 1: History of Psychology, Second edition (pp. 279-301). New York: Wiley.

Rutherford, A. & Pettit, M. (2015). Feminism and/in/as psychology: The public sciences of sex and gender. History of Psychology, 18(3), 223-237.

Rutherford, A. & Pickren, W.E. (2008). Women and minorities in psychology. In S. Davis & B. Buskist (Eds.), 21st century psychology: A reference handbook. (pp. 25-36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Rutherford, A., Vaughn-Blount, K., & Ball, L.C. (2010). Responsible opposition, disruptive voices: Science, activism, and the history of feminist psychology. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 34, 160-173.

Schwesinger, G. C. (1943). Wartime organizational activities of women psychologists: II. The National Council of Women Psychologists. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 7, 298- 299.

Shields, S. A. (2007). Passionate men, emotional women: Psychology constructs gender difference in the late 19th century. History of Psychology, 10, 92-110.

Shields, S. A. (1984). "To pet, coddle, and 'do for'": Caretaking and the concept of maternal instinct. In M. Lewin (Ed.), In the shadow of the past: Psychology examines the sexes (pp. 256-273). New York: Columbia University Press.

Shields, S. A. (1982). The variability hypothesis: The history of a biological model of sex differences in intelligence. Signs, 7, 769-797.

Shields, S. A. (1975). Functionalism, Darwinism, and the psychology of women. American Psychologist, 30, 739-754.

Stewart, A J., & Dottolo, A. L. (2006). Feminist psychology. Signs, 31, 493-509.

Teo, T. (2005). The critique of psychology: From Kant to postcolonial theory. New York: Springer. [Contains a chapter on the feminist critique of psychology]

Tiefer, L. (1991). A brief history of the Association for Women in Psychology: 1969-1991. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 635-649. [A version of this article and a second installment (1991-2008) can be found at the Association for Women in Psychology website.

Unger, R. K. (1998). Resisting gender: Twenty-five years of feminist psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Vaughter, R. M. (1976). Psychology. Signs, 2, 120-146.

Walsh, M. R. (1985). Academic professional women organizing for change: The struggle in psychology. Journal of Social Issues, 41, 17-28.

Wilkinson, S. & Burns, J. (1990). Women organizing within psychology: Two accounts. In E. Burman (Ed.), Feminists and psychological practice (pp. 140-162). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

North American Classics I

This is a small selection of pre-second wave primary sources, many of which focused on empirically testing beliefs about sex differences. Also see the Special Collection entitled "An historical view of some early women psychologists and the psychology of women" by Katherine Milar at the Classics in the History of Psychology website.

Hollingworth, L. S. (1914a). Functional periodicity: An experimental study of the mental and motor abilities of women during menstruation. Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education, No. 69.

Hollingworth, L. S. (1914b). Variability as related to sex differences in achievement: A critique. American Journal of Sociology, 19, 510-530.

Hollingworth, L. S. & Lowie, R. (1916/2002). Science and feminism. In D. Keetley (Ed.), Public women, public words: A documentary history of American feminism, Volume II, 1900- 1960 (pp. 90-95). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publisher.

Calkins, M. W. (1896). Dr. Jastrow on community of ideas of men and women. Psychological Review, 2, 363-367.

Seward, G. H. (1944). Psychological effects of the menstrual cycle in women workers. Psychological Bulletin, 41, 90-102.

Seward, G. H. (1944). Sex roles in postwar planning. Journal of Social Psychology, 19, 163-185.

Seward, G. H. (1946). Sex and the social order. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Tanner, A. (1896). The community of ideas of men and women. Psychological Review, 3, 548-550.

Thompson, H. B. (1903). The mental traits of sex: An empirical investigation of the normal mind in men and women. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Woolley, H. T. (1914). The psychology of sex. Psychological Bulletin, 11, 353-379.

North American Classics II

This is a highly selective list of second wave and post-second wave works that have had a significant impact. Since this is in many ways "history in the making," not all may agree with these selections and many will have their own favorites that do not appear here. We also include several works written by non-psychologists that have significantly influenced feminist psychology.

Belenky, M. F., Clinchey, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women's ways of knowing: Development of self, voice, and mind. New York: Basic Books.

Bem, S. L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42, 155-162.

Brodsky, A. M., & Hare-Mustin, R. T. (1980). Women and psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.

Broverman, I. K., Broverman, D. M., Clarkson, F. E., Rosenkrantz, P. S., & Vogel, S. R. (1970). Sex role stereotypes and clinical judgments of mental health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 1-7.

Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.

Chesler, P. (1972). Women and madness. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Chodorow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Collins, P. Hill (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. Boston: Unwin Hyman.

Crenshaw, K. W. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43, 1241-1299.

Deaux, K. & Emswiller, T. (1974). Explanation of successful performance on sex-linked tasks: What is skill for the male is luck for the female. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 80-85.

Dinnerstein, D. (1976). The mermaid and the minotaur: Sexual arrangement and human malaise. New York: Harper & Row.

Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Espin, O. (1997). Latina realities: Essays on healing, migration, and sexuality. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Fine, M. (1992). Disruptive voices: The possibilities of feminist research. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Fine, M., Weis, L., Powell, L., & Burns, A. (Eds.)(2004). Off-white: Readings on power, privilege, and resistance, Second edition.New York: Routledge.

Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Harding, S. (1986). The science question in feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Henley, N. (1977). Body politics: Power, sex, and nonverbal communication. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

hooks, b. (1981). Ain't I a woman? Black women and feminism. Boston: South End Press.

hooks, b. (1984). Feminist theory: From margin to center. Boston: South End Press.

Horner, M. S. (1972). Toward an understanding of achievement-related conflicts in women. Journal of Social Issues, 28, 157-175.

Hurtado, A. (1996). The color of privilege: Three blasphemies on race and feminism. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Hyde, J. S. (2005). The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60, 581-592.

Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Miller, J. B. (1976). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston: Beacon Press.

Mohanty, C. T. (1988). Under western eyes: Feminist scholarship and colonial discourses. Feminist Review, 30, 61-88.

Reid, P. T. (1993). Poor women in psychological research: Shut up and shut out. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 133-150.

Reinharz, S. (1979/1992). Feminist methods in social research. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rich, A. (1979). On lies, secrets, and silence. New York: Norton.

Riger, S. (1992). Epistemological debates, feminist voices: Science, social values, and the study of women. American Psychologist, 47, 730-740.

Sandoval, C. (2000). Methodology of the oppressed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Sedgwick, E. K. (1990). Epistemology of the closet. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sherif, C. W. (1979/1998). Bias in psychology. Reprinted in Feminism & Psychology, 8, 58-75.

Sherman, J.A. (1971). On the psychology of women: A survey of empirical studies. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Tiefer, L. (1995). Sex is not a natural act and other essays. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Tobach, E., & Rosoff, B. (1977). Genes and gender (Vol. 1). New York: Gordian Press.

Tuwahi Smith, L. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. London: Zed Books.

Unger, R. K. (1979). Toward a redefinition of sex and gender. American Psychologist, 34, 1085-1094.

Weisstein, N. (1971). Psychology constructs the female; or, The fantasy life of the male psychologist (with some attention to the fantasies of his friends, the male biologist and the male anthropologist). Journal of Social Education, 35, 362-373.

Weisstein, N. (1977). "How can a little girl like you teach a great big class of men?" the Chairman said, and other adventures of a woman in science. In S. Ruddick and P. Daniels (Eds.), Working it out (pp. 241-250), New York, NY: Pantheon Books.

The following resources are historical or contextual accounts of feminism and women's movements organized by country. These resources provide a framework for understanding the challenges and experiences of women in science by embedding them within the larger context of political struggles for gender equality and the meanings of feminism over time and in diverse geopolitical locations. This list is preliminary and incomplete. We welcome suggestions for additional resources.

Australia

Magarey, S. (2001). Passions of the first wave feminists. Sydney, Australia: University of New South Wales Press.

Britain

Holton, S. S. (1986). Feminism and democracy: Women’s suffrage and reform politics in Britain, 1900-1918. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Pugh, M. (1992). Women and the women’s movement in Britain, 1914-1959. New York: Macmillan.

Pugh, M. (2000). The march of the women: A revisionist analysis of the campaign for women’s suffrage, 1866-1914. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Smith, H. (Ed.) (1990). British feminism in the 20th century. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

van Wingerden, S. A. (1999). The women’s suffrage movement in Britain, 1866-1928. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Canada

Bacchi, C. L. (1983). Liberation deferred? The ideas of the English-Canadian suffragists, 1877-1918. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Backhouse, C., & Flaherty, D. H. (Eds). (1992). Challenging time: The women’s movement in Canada and the United States. Montreal, QC and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Cleverdon, C. L. (1978). The woman suffrage movement in Canada: The start of liberation (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Kealey, L. (1979). A not unreasonable claim: Women and reform in Canada, 1880s-1920s. Toronto: Women’s Educational Press.

Luxton, M. (2001). Feminism as a class act: Working-class Feminism and the women’s movement in Canada. Labour/Le Travail, 48, 63-88.

Maillé, C. (2000). Féminisme et movement des femmes au Québec. Un bilan complexe [Feminism and the women’s movement in Quebec. A complex assessment]. Globe: Revue international d’études québécoises, 3(2), 87-105. Doi: 10.7202/1000583ar

Millar, N. (2003). The famous five: A pivotal moment in Canadian women’s history. Calgary: Deadwood Publishing.

Rebick, J. (2005). Ten thousand roses: The making of a feminist revolution. Toronto: Penguin Canada.

China

Edwards, L. (2000). Women’s suffrage in China: Challenging scholarly conventions. Pacific Historical Review, 69(4), 617-638.

France

Bidelman, P. K. (1982). Pariahs stand up! The founding of the liberal Feminist movement in France, 1858-1889. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Moses, C. G. (1984). French feminism in the 19th century. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Germany

Evans, R. J. (1976). The feminist movement in Germany, 1894-1933. London: Sage Publications.

Ireland

Owens, R. C. (1995). Smashing times: A history of the Irish women’s suffrage movement, 1889-1922. Dublin, Ireland: Attic Press.

Japan

Fujieda, M. (1995). Japan’s first phase of feminism. In K. Fujimura-Fanselow, & A. Kameda (Eds), Japanese women: New feminist perspectives on the past, present, and future (pp. 323-342). New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York.

Tanaka, K. (1995). The new feminist movement in Japan, 1970-1990. In K. Fujimura-Fanselow, & A. Kameda (Eds), Japanese women: New Feminist perspectives on the past, present, and future (pp. 343-352). New York: The Feminist Press at the City University of New York.

Mexico

Macales, A. (1982). Against all odds: The feminist movement in Mexico to 1940. Westport, CA and London: Greenwood Press.

Russia

Stites, R. (1978). The women’s liberation movement in Russia: Feminism, nihilism, and Bolshevism, 1960-1930. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Uganda

Tripp, A. M., & Kwesiga, J. C. (Eds.). (2002). The women’s movement in Uganda: History, challenges, and prospects. Kampala: Fountain Publishers.

United States

PRE-1848

Klinghoffer, J. A., & Elkis, L. (1992). “The petticoat electors”: Women’s suffrage in New Jersey, 1776-1807. Journal of the Early Republic, 12(2), 159-193.

Lerner, G. (1994). The creation of feminist consciousness: From the Middle Ages to eighteen-seventy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stansell, C. (2010). The feminist promise: 1792-present. New York: The Modern Library.

1848-1950s

Adams, K. & Keene, M. L. (2007). Alice Paul and the American suffrage campaign. Champaign., IL: University of Illinois Press.

Brown, D. M. (1987). Setting a course: American women in the 1920s. Boston: Twayne Publishers.

Cooney, R. P. J., Jr. (2005). Winning the vote: The triumph of the American woman suffrage movement. Santa Cruz, CA: American Graphic Press.

DuBois, E. C. (1999). Feminism and suffrage: The emergence of an independent women’s movement in America, 1848-1869. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Garner, L. (1984). Stepping stones to women’s liberty: Feminist ideas in the women’s suffrage movement, 1900-1918. Cranbury, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.

Hartmann, S. M. (1982). The home front and beyond: American women in the 1940s. Boston: Twayne Publishers.

Higginbotham, E. B. (1993). Righteous discontent: The women’s movement in the Black Baptist church, 1880-1920. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Leach, W. (1980). True love and perfect union: The feminist reform of sex and society. New York: Basic Books.

Terborg-Penn, R. (1998). African American women in the struggle for the vote, 1850-1920. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Ware, S. (1982). Holding their own: American women in the 1930s. Boston: Twayne Publishers.

White, Deborah Gray (1999). Too heavy a load: Black women in defense of themselves, 1894-1994. New York: Norton.

1960s-1980s

Breines, W. (2007). The trouble between us: An uneasy history of White and Black women in the feminist movement. New York and London: Oxford University Press.

Brownmiller, S. (2000). In our time: Memoir of a revolution. New York: The Dial Press.

Cobble, D. S., Gordon, L. & Henry, A. (2014). Feminism unfinished: A short, surprising history of American women's movements. New York: Norton.

Collins, G. (2009). When everything changed: The amazing journey of American women from 1960 to the present. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

Coontz, S. (2011). A strange stirring: The Feminine Mystique and American women at the dawn of the 1960s. New York: Basic Books.

Davis, F. (1991). Moving the mountain: The women’s movement in America since 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Echols, A. (1989). Daring to be bad: Radical feminism in America 1967-1975. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Ezekiel, J. (2002). Feminism in the heartland. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press.

Farmer, A. D. (2017). Remaking Black Power: How Black women transformed an era. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Gilmore, S. (2008). Feminist coalitions: Historical perspectives on second wave feminism in the United States. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Henold, M. J. (2008). Catholic and feminist: The surprising history of the American Catholic Feminist movement. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Love, B. (Ed.). (2006). Feminists who changed America. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Nelson, J. (2003). Women of color and the reproductive rights movement. New York: New York University Press.

Orleck, A. (2015). Rethinking American women's activism. New York: Routledge.

Rosen, R. (2000). The world split open: How the women’s movement changed America. New York: Penguin.

Roth, B. (2004). Separate roads to feminism: Black, Chicana, and White feminist movements in America's second wave. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Spencer, R. C. (2016). The revolution has come: Black Power, gender, and the Black Panther party in Oakland. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Springer, K. (2005). Living for the revolution: Black feminist organizations, 1968-1980. Durham, NC: University of North Carolia Press.

Valk, A. M. (2008). Radical sisters: Second wave feminism and Black liberation in Washington, DC. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Whittier, N. (1995). Feminist generations: The persistence of the radical women’s movement. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Mid-1990s-present

Henry, A. (2004). Not my mother’s sister: Generational conflict and third-wave Feminism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Orr, C. M. (1997). Charting the currents of the third wave. Hypatia, 12(3), 29-45.

General

Hewitt, N. A. (2010). No permanent waves: Recasting histories of U. S. feminism. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.